class: center, middle # Alternative History of Hypnotism --- # Outline 1. The Actual History 2. The Problem 3. The Alternative History 4. The Future --- class: center, middle ## But First, Some Definitions --- class: center, middle ## Hypnosis is a mental experience. ## Hypnotism is a ritual between hypnotist and subject. --- class: center, middle ## Culture Informs Ritual ??? * Rituals are informed by culture. * To understand the history, we have to understand the culture. --- # Physician Culture * Rushed * Impersonal * Not comfort based * Series of instructions that will “fix” things * Authority based. --- class: center, middle ## The Usual Story --- # Discovery of Hypnosis * Paracelus (1500s) * Maximillian Hell (1740s) * Mesmer (1774) * Marquis de Puységur (1785) * Abbe Faria (1813) * Braid (1840s) * Liebeault (1866) * Bernheim (1888) * Freud (1906) ??? - http://www.iaebp.com/hypnotherapy-suggestion-therapy/a-history-of-hypnosis-and-hypnotism/ --- class: center, middle ## More Accurate... --- # Physicians Invent Hypnotism * Magnets might heal people. (1500s) * Magnetized Steel Plates heal people! (1740s) * I can wave my hands and do it! I'm magnetic! (1774) * Magnetism can make you do [really odd things](https://archive.org/details/essayofinstructi00puys/page/n6). (1785) * Not magnets! Suggestion! (Maybe [lucid sleep](http://www.pnl-nlp.org/download/faria/)?) (1813) * [I have invented Hypnotism](https://archive.org/details/braidonhypnotism00brai/page/n6). (1840) * I'm a doctor, and I'll hypnotize you for free. (1866) * It looks like people have [subconscious minds](https://archive.org/details/suggestivetherap00bern/page/n6). (1888) * I'm crap at hypnotism. I have invented psychotherapy. (1906) ??? - Note that psychotherapy literally came from Freud studying under Bernheim. --- # Mesmerism * Hand Passes! * Fixed Gazes! * The Power of the Hypnotist! * Yelling "Sleep!" --- class: center, middle ![mesmerism.jpg](mesmerism.jpg) [click](mesmerism.jpg) --- # "Advances" in Hypnotism Pre-Nancy School * Eye Fixation / Fascination * From 1500s by [Agrippa](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Cornelius_Agrippa) * Popularized by Braid after watching [Lafontaine](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Lafontaine#James_Braid). * Massive Stimulation (Paris School) * Shock the senses with gongs. * Tuning forks! * Staring into sun from dark room * Wake up patients by "applying pressure" to the ovaries. ??? - Gravitz and Gerton (1984a), p110 --- class: center, middle ![gong.jpg](gong.jpg) --- # Nancy School * Medical care costs, but hypnosis is free. * Attempts to make a standardized process out of hypnotism. * Fascination and repeated suggestions of sleep. * Lots of people. * Not cruel but brusk, people kicked out while still fractionated. * Lots of prepping, no isolation, so social carryover and pressure. * Worked best with poor, desperate, and highly motivated patients. ??? - Van Renterghem (1898) p48-49 --- class: center, middle ![imaperson](imaperson.jpg) [click](imaperson.jpg) ??? - Hypnosis: Real or Wack? --- class: center, middle Bad Press, confusion with [stage hypnotism](https://www.newtonhypnosis.com/mesmeric-arts/). Not popular with upper classes. It failed. Lots. Other doctors wouldn't touch it, and didn't understand it. By 1900, the Nancy school was done. --- # Psychologists Invent Hypnotism * 1889: [Introspective Hypnotism](https://www.cairn.info/revue-histoire-des-sciences-humaines-2001-2-page-171.htm?contenu=plan#pa12) (Forel) * Suggestions, rather than orders. * First [hypnosis journal](https://archive.org/stream/zeitschriftfrhy10unkngoog/zeitschriftfrhy10unkngoog_djvu.txt), reporting on self-hypnosis. * 1902: [Hypnosleep](https://archive.org/details/hypnotismitsappl00wett) (Wetterstrand) * 1903: [Fractionation Induction](https://www.cairn.info/revue-histoire-des-sciences-humaines-2001-2-page-171.htm?contenu=plan#pa27) (Vogt & Brodmann) * 1910: [Convincers (Arm Raise, Hand Stick, Eye Stick)](https://www.ukhypnosis.com/2009/06/17/emile-coues-method-of-“conscious-autosuggestion”/) (Coué) * 1921: Laws of Attention, Reversed Effort, Auxilary Emotion (Badouin) * 1923: Waking Hypnosis (Wells) * 1923: Hand Levitation induction (Erickson) * 1929: [Progressive Muscle Relaxation](http://www.progressiverelaxation.org) (Jacobson) ??? - Hull, C. L. 1933. Hypnosis and suggestibility: an experimental approach - Alex Erskine - A Hypnotist's Case Book - https://archive.org/details/suggestionandau00baudgoog/page/n6 - https://www.newtonhypnosis.com/mesmeric-arts/ - Hull must have had balls of steel. --- # Psychologists Invent Hypnotism * 1933: Compounding of Suggestion (Hull) * 1940s: Yes Sets, Confusion Technique * 1947: [Pacing and Leading](https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1948-01050-001) (Welch) * 1949: Elman Induction * 1957: The Practice of Hypnotism (Wietzenhoffer) * 1975: [Double Bind](https://sci-hub.tw/10.1080/00029157.1975.10403733) --- # Hypnosis Research * 1933: Research picks up with Hull's "Hypnosis and Suggestibility." * Hull's lab closed. No-one knows why. * Story #1: Hypnosis threatened chastity of female students. * Story #2: Student hypnotized, not alert afterwards, was hit by car. * 1939: Hypnosis saved as WWII requires pain relief but short of drugs * Clinicians teach each other hypnosis, stick together after war * 1949: [Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis](https://www.sceh.us) (SCEH) * 1957: Hilgard starts Stanford Laboratory of Hypnosis Research * 1961: Medfield Foundation: research under Theodore Barber. * 1964: Martin Orne opens Unit for Experimental Psychiatry at Penn. ??? - http://www.fmsfonline.org/?ginterest=Hypnosis --- # The Elman Years * 1900: Elman born. * 1908: Elman's father has pain relief from stage hypnotist friend. * 1922: Elman starts off as a stage hypnotist in New York. * 1928: Elman moves to work as a Radio presenter. * 1937: Elman presents [Hobby Lobby](https://www.americanradiohistory.com/Archive-Radio-Life/40s/42/Radio-Life-1942-03-01.pdf) * 1949: Elman Induction shown to dentist friends, immediate reaction * 1950s: Training courses "Medical Relaxation" * He also recorded "Hypno-Analysis" tape recordings, lots of them. * 1964: Elman writes Findings in Hypnosis, aka [Hypnotherapy](https://archive.org/details/hypnotherapy00elma). * 1967: Dies suddenly. :-( --- # The Erickson years * 1923: Erickson studies under Hull * 1950: Secter, Hershman, Erickson offer workshops. * 1953: AMA tries to revoke his medical license. * 1957: Erickson forms [American Society of Clinical Hypnosis](https://www.asch.net) (ASCH) after arguments * 1970s: Seminars when very sick (this is when he "got big") ??? - Historical Note on the Hand Levitation and other Ideomotor Techniques - Deep Hypnosis and Its Induction - Yes Sets & Confusion come from "The Dynamics of Visualization, Levitation and Confusion in Trance Induction" p292 - Erickson teaches it to Wolberg "I am deeply grateful to Dr. Milton H. Erickson who taught me, some years ago, the technic of induction of hypnosis by hand levitation which is included in this volume." - Medical Hypnosis - Volume I - The Principles of Hypnotherapy - Lewis R. Wolberg --- class: center, middle ## Erickson is Hypnosis Buddha. ## Many stories, much truthiness. --- class: center, middle ## Erickson wasn't an Ericksonian! ## [Will the real Milton Erickson please stand up?](https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207148808410506) --- class: center, middle "Erickson's work has been simplified and narrowed to the point that I am quite sure he would not recognize it as his own." -- Kay Thompson, _Almost 1984_ --- # Clinical Hypnotism * 1952: [Gestalt Therapy](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestalt_therapy) (Fritz Perls) * 1954: [Ideomotor Signaling](https://www.asch.net/portals/0/journallibrary/articles/ajch-53/53-3/shenefelt.pdf) (LeCron) * 1964: Reframing (Virginia Satir) * 1965: 3rd International Congress for Hypnosis * 1976: [Active-Alert Hypnosis](https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1976-21835-001) (Banyai & Hilgard) * 1983: Hypnosis for the Seriously Curious (Bowers) * 1986: [Carleton Skills Training](https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3418486) (Spanos) * 1999: Modifying Hypnotic Suggestibility (Gorassini & Spanos) * 2004: The Highly Hypnotizable Person (Heap) ??? - Gestalt is reliving older memories - Gorassini, D. R., Spanos, N. P. (1986). A cognitive-social skills approach to the successful modification of hypnotic suggestibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1004-1012. - Gorassini, D. R. & Spanos, N. P. (1999). The Carleton skill training program for modifying hypnotic suggestibility: Original version and variations. In: I. Kirsch, A. Capafons, E. Cardeña-Buelna & S. Amigó, Clinical Hypnosis & Self-Regulation: Cognitive-Behavioural Perspectives (pp. 141–177). Washington: American Psychological Association. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3418486 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3572726 - https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~jfkihlstrom/APAHypnosis07.htm - https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~jfkihlstrom/SCEH2013.htm --- class: center, middle ## Problems with Clinical Hypnotism --- class: center, middle Experimental hypnosis has come on strongly, particularly in the last 20 years. [Clinical hypnosis has not done so](http://www.mheap.com/nature_of_hypnosis.html). ??? - Erickson stood out for the risks he was willing to take. - Most therapists will not experiment or try different things with hypnosis. - There's a stunning amount of ignorance and misinformation out there. - Lack of accreditation and the stigma attached is a drawback. - Most hypnotherapists won't touch sexual dysfunction with a barge pole. - Likewise, therapists won't touch hypnosis, unless you tell them it's CBT. --- class: center, middle ## Researchers study Hypnosis, not Hypnotism. --- # Signs of Progress * [Towards an Evidence-Based Hypnosis: Research Findings](https://www.ukhypnosis.com/2017/07/23/towards-an-evidence-based-hypnosis-research-findings/) * [Nuances and Uncertainties Regarding Hypnotic Inductions: Toward a Theoretically Informed Praxis](https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00029157.2016.1201454) * [Kaz Riley](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDJkZCHmnrw) * Mark Griffith, [Hypnosis And Sexual Health](https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/in-excess/201612/hypnosis-and-sexual-health) * [Provocative Hypnosis](http://provocativehypnosis.com) --- # Meanwhile, in Popular Culture * 1960s: [Pat Collins, the Hip Hypnotist](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLygPmJ-i1U) * 1967: Jungle Book :-) * 1987: Improve Your Sex Life Through Self-Hypnosis (Kappas*) * 1990: [The Andrew Newton Hypnotic Experience](https://www.newtonhypnosis.com/youre-back-in-the-1970s/), hypnotists proliferate * 2005: Deeper and Deeper (Chase) * 2007: Reality is Plastic (Jaquin) * 2007: Don't Look in His Eyes (Chase) *Florence Henderson and John Kappas were totally closet hypnokinksters --- # Meanwhile, on the Internet * 1990s: Yahoo Group [Brian David Phillips](http://briandavidphillips.net) * 1996: [MC Stories](https://mcstories.com/WhatWasNew1996.html) * 1998: bondage.com, IRC groups * 2007: Tumblr * 2008: Fetlife --- ## Kink invents Hypnotism * 1999: [Hypnocon](http://www.hypnocon.com) * 2008: [Hypnoticon](http://briandavidphillips.net/2007/07/25/hypnoticon-the-inclusive-hypnosis-convention-1-3-february-2008-atlanta-georgia/) * 2008: [Forked Tongue](http://forkedtonguebook.com) (Flagg) * 2010: [NEEHU](http://www.neehu.org/?page_id=32) * 2011: [Look into My Eyes](https://www.amazon.com/Look-Into-My-Eyes-Hypnosis/dp/1440449864/) (Peter Masters) * 2013: [Mind Play](https://www.amazon.com/Mind-Play-Guide-Erotic-Hypnosis/dp/1975987373/) (Mark Wiseman) * 2016: [Hypnotic Amnesia](https://www.amazon.com/Hypnotic-Amnesia-LeeAllure/dp/1517055369) (LeeAllure and DJ Pynchon) * 2019: [Mastering Erotic Hypnosis](https://www.amazon.com/Mastering-Erotic-Hypnosis-Comprehensive-Mastery/dp/0578431424/) (James Gordon and Rebecca Doll) * 2019: [Brainwashing Book](https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08162XL65/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_dp_U_x_kuoXDbTWKN8ZZ) (sleepingirl) ??? * 23 people munch Buddy (Dr Slashblight) * New English Hypnosis Group * Boston has lots of curious people * Enthusiastic Consent (Yes means Yes, Jaclyn Friedman) * Recreational Hypnosis, based on theory of consent * Fetlife was the key. * Mastering EH based in (Hypnosis Motivation Institute) --- class: center, middle ## The Problem --- # The Problem * Look at these dates! * It's literally 100 years between de Puységur and Bernheim! * During that time, it was 100 years of direct suggestions! * The PMR showed up in 1929! * It took until the 1960s to have decent psychological models! --- class: center, middle ## What if the Nancy School had a different culture of hypnotism? --- class: center, middle ## **The Alternative History** ## (with apologies to Zinn) --- class: center, middle ## "Hypnotism is a ritual between hypnotist and subject" ## Two roles, playing different parts. --- class: center, middle ## The Hypnotist engages in an act of **rhetoric**. ## The Subject engages in an act of **meditation**. --- ## So? * Rhetoric and meditation are not new. * Rhetoric dates from 5 BC, starting with the Sophists in Ancient Greece. * Meditation dates from 3000 BC, from India. * The first "field research" was in the Nancy School and Paris Schools. * 1866, so Rhetoric and Buddhist meditation would have been available. --- class: center, middle ## Rhetoric --- ## If Rhetoric had been available * Rhetoric: literally the art of persuasion. * logos: argument from reason * (you're sleepy because you're blinking more.) * pathos: argument from emotion * (it feels so good to relax) * ethos: argument from moral stance * (you can let go and trust your doctor) * Rhetoric understood elicting emotions first, reasons after. * Braid recognized that rhetoric was important, but didn't follow up. --- class: center, middle Speech is a powerful lord, which by means of the finest and most invisible body effects the divinest works: it can stop fear and banish grief and create joy and nurture pity. --- class: center, middle ## The Best Damn Rhetorician In The World --- class: center, middle ![mrrogers](mrrogers.jpg) [click](mrrogers.jpg) --- # If Mr Rogers had worked at the Nancy School * Reduced a senator to tears in 6 minutes at a congressional hearing. * [Mr. Rogers and the Power of Persuasion](https://youtu.be/_DGdDQrXv5U) * [Mr. Rogers Had a Simple Set of Rules for Talking to Children](https://www.theatlantic.com/family/archive/2018/06/mr-rogers-neighborhood-talking-to-kids/562352/) --- class: center, middle ## Meditation --- # More Definitions * There are several kinds of meditation. * Generally fall into two broad categories * Focused Attention (FA) * Open monitoring (OM) * In Focused Attention, what you focus on is what you get. * Hypnotic meditation focuses attention on following suggestions. * Corollary: driving in a car or reading a book does not result in hypnosis. * Trance is not the same as hypnosis. * Suggestions made to someone reading a book don't work. --- ## A Series of Near Misses * Faria: This is Indian meditation stuff. * Esdaile: Indian meditation stuff. * Braid: "the eastern saints are all self-hypnotisers" * 1915: [Pierre Bernard, the Omnipotent Oom](http://www.esoteric.msu.edu/VolumeIII/HTML/Oom.html) * Tantric Sex Guy! * Practiced a branch of Saiva Tantra and knew hypnosis... * ...and also ran a private spa/sex cult for rich people. * Tantra scholars **still** pissed about it. * 1970(!): Researchers start studying meditation. * 2011: [Mindfulness and Hypnosis](https://www.amazon.com/Mindfulness-Hypnosis-Suggestion-Transform-Experience/dp/0393706974) (Yapko) * 2016: [Hypnosis and Meditation](https://www.amazon.com/Hypnosis-meditation-Towards-integrative-conscious-ebook/dp/B01DYHXX86/) (Raz) ??? - 1896 was when yoga was introduced https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swami_Vivekananda --- ## Yoga Sutra * breath-control (pranayama) * sense-withdrawal (pratyahara) * process of calming mind (samatha) * concentration (dharana) * meditation (dhyana) * result of concentration (samadhi) --- ## Buddhist Thought * Subjects had no way to describe internal state. * No "superego", "ego", "id" before Freud. * No way for physicians to understand mental issues. * Saiva Tantra and Buddhism had models and vocabulary. --- ## Four Levels of Speech * Vaikhari: Ordinary Speech... * Madhyama: ...is shaped by how you think... * Pasyanti: ...which is shaped by your unconscious convictions... * Para: ...which is shaped by your inner awareness. --- ## Buddhist Cognitive Model * Meditation to see how thoughts pass through the mind * Rumination: thought loops * Mindfulness to break those loops, break out of patterns. * Thoughts create reality * Yogachara says senses are also consciousness. * Literally, what you see is a product of mind. --- ## Wildass Speculation * Model says we construct reality from raw input * Hypnotic Induction involves inserting 'tist into loop. * Raw Input “eyes tired” → suggestion → “I'm tired because 'tist said so.” * Through induction, construction becomes a combination of raw input and collaboration from hypnotist. * In some ways, hypnosis is anti-mindfulness meditation! --- ## Alternative Scenario * A travelling Yogi/Zen Master shows up at the Nancy School. * He teaches Bernheim and Freud how the mind works. * He also establishes meditation as a recurring practice. * Upper classes prove mental prowess and superiority through hypnosis. * Mindfulness and Hypnosis Spas become hot 100 years before Esalen. --- class: center, middle ## So now what? --- class: center, middle ## The Future --- # The Future: Rise of the Amateurs * Each culture has different conceptions and rituals: * Stage, Physician, Clinical, Research, and now Kink. * We're not psychologists or physicians: we don't fix people or do therapy. * We're free to experiment with sex, pain, and conditioning. * We're able to do long term experiments and studies. * We don't give a shit about how respectable it looks. --- # The Future: Better Inductions * [Fitting inductions to people](https://www.amazon.com/Hypnosis-Hard-Hypnotise-Inductions-Masterclass-ebook/dp/B07LFFNWH8/) * [Teaching Hypnosis as a Skill to Newbies](https://binauralhistolog.keybase.pub/newbie) * [Kinesthetic Inductions](https://binaural-histolog.tumblr.com/post/180432796208/meehu-2-notes-kinesthetic-inductions) * [Burrito Hypnosis](https://therealbue.tumblr.com/post/160507333804/burrito-hypnosis) * [Recursive Inductions](https://binaural-histolog.tumblr.com/post/180191642246/nested-inductions) * [Hypnosleep](https://www.sas.upenn.edu/psych/history/orne/evansetal1966science666667.html)! * [Sleep induced behavioral response](https://www.sas.upenn.edu/psych/history/orne/evansetal1969jnmd467476.html) * [jukebox](https://jukeboxemcsa.wordpress.com/2011/01/16/sweet-nothings/) ??? - There's also some other citations that sound useful; "Sleep-induced behavioral response: Relationship to susceptibility to hypnosis and laboratory sleep patterns. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1969, 148, 467-476." and "Techniques for exploring cognitive activity during sleep. Hypnosis: Research developments and perspectives. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1972, pp 43-83." --- # The Future: Better suggestions * Operant Conditioning using Sexual Pleasure * [Conditioning Pleasure](https://binaural-histolog.tumblr.com/post/174955324099/conditioning-pleasure) * [Rewards and Motivators in Hypnosis](https://binaural-histolog.tumblr.com/post/174855279229/rewards-and-motivators-in-hypnosis) * Memory Play * [Conditioning and Memory Play](https://binaural-histolog.tumblr.com/post/175416364534/conditioning-and-memory-play) * [Adversarial Memories](https://deeperforme.blogspot.com/2018/11/a-serious-reality-fuck-hypnotic.html) * [Recursive Suggestions](https://binaural-histolog.tumblr.com/post/176127318989/hypnosis-scene-idea-inception) * [Hallucination Training](https://www.reddit.com/r/EroticHypnosis/comments/94iytd/need_help_comparing_experiences_to/e3ncqcr) --- # The Future: Learn from the past * Study rhetoric for better suggestions * Study meditation for internal state of thoughts --- # The Future: Steal from other disciplines * [Constructed theory of emotion](https://www.affective-science.org/pubs/2017/barrett-tce-scan-2017.pdf) * Emotions are cultural labels on the [affect system](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affect_%28psychology%29). * Different cultures have different emotions. * [Hygge](https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=hygge) * [Liget](https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Liget) * [Compersion](https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Compersion) * [Elaboration Likelihood model of persuasion](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaboration_likelihood_model) * Central route: careful and thoughtful consideration. * Peripheral route: association with cues from stimulus. --- # The Future: Technology * [Muse](https://www.morpheusclinic.com/muse-headband/) * [Nova Pro](http://www.photosonix.com/products/nova-pro-100/) * [Generated Hypnotic Patter](https://binaural-histolog.tumblr.com/tagged/sonic-pi) * [Transcranial magnetic stimulation](https://binaural-histolog.tumblr.com/post/178196908894/hypnosis-and-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation#notes) * [Real Hypnosis Reviews](http://realhypnosisreviews.blogspot.com) --- # Sources * [A Critical History of Hypnotism](https://www.amazon.com/Critical-History-Hypnotism-Unauthorized-Story-ebook/dp/B079KH6BB8/ref=sr_1_1), Rosenfield * [The Induction of Hypnosis](https://www.amazon.com/Induction-Hypnosis-Wiley-Personality-Processes/dp/0471831123), Edmonston * [The Practice of Hypnotism](https://www.amazon.com/Practice-Hypnotism-Vol-Semi-Traditional-Phenomenology/dp/0471621676), Wietzenhoffer * [Hypnosis for the Seriously Curious](https://www.amazon.com/Hypnosis-Seriously-Curious-Kenneth-Bowers/dp/0393953394), Bowers * [The Highly Hypnotizable Person](https://read.amazon.com/kp/embed?asin=B00IC8PQ6K), Heap * [Trancework](https://www.amazon.com/Trancework-Introduction-Practice-Clinical-Hypnosis-ebook-dp-B07K4STX54/dp/B07K4STX54/), Yapko * [Mindfulness and Hypnosis](https:/www.amazon.com/Mindfulness-Hypnosis-Suggestion-Transform-Experience-ebook/dp/B005LW5K1Q), Yapko * [Hypnosis and meditation](https://www.amazon.com/Hypnosis-meditation-Towards-integrative-conscious-ebook/dp/B01DYHXX86), Raz * [Theraputic Inductions](https://smile.amazon.com/Therapeutic-Inductions-Rethinking-Hypnosis-Beginning-ebook/dp/B07B3Y8G59), Graham Old --- class: center, middle ![qcode](qcode.png) Slides on https://binauralhistolog.keybase.pub/alternative/index.html --- ## Questions?